Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, supports EU Member States and Schengen Associated Countries in managing the EU’s external borders and fighting cross-border crime. With the newly created standing corps, Europe’s first uniformed service, Frontex is present in the places where European countries need support, working together with them for a safer, more secure Europe.

The Agency employs over 1900 staff members coming from EU Member States and Schengen Associated Countries. Among them there are over 900 members of the European Border and Coast Guard standing corps who will be mostly deployed in Frontex operations.

Frontex started with a budget of EUR 6 mln in 2005, receiving then EUR 19 mln in 2006 and EUR 118 mln in 2011. The budget decreased in 2012 to a level of EUR 85 mln, but steadily grew to EUR 142 mln in 2015; EUR 254 mln in 2016; EUR 302 mln in 2017; EUR 320 mln in 2018; EUR 333 mln in 2019; EUR 364 mln in 2020; EUR 535 mln in 2021 and finally EUR 754 in 2022.

Once the annual budget of Frontex is endorsed by its Management Board, it is presented to the European Commission and must be approved by the European Parliament. Frontex is legally obliged to report to the European Parliament about each year’s activities and expenses. In addition, every year the European Court of Auditors performs an audit on the accounts to ensure financial transparency. Based on this annual report, the European Parliament will — on a recommendation by the Council of Ministers — decide whether or not to accept that year’s accounts. This is the final stage of the budgetary cycle and is how accountability is safeguarded.
Yes. Frontex works closely with other EU partners such as European agencies Europol, European Asylum Support Office (EASO), Eurojust, Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA), EU-Lisa, European Maritime Agency (EMSA), European Fisheries Control Agency (EFCA), the European Police College (CEPOL) and many others.

Frontex also works closely with a variety of international organisations and bodies, including United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), International Organisation for Migration (IOM), ICMPD and others.

See here for the full list of our EU partners and for the list of international organisations with whom Frontex has signed working arrangements.

Frontex also cooperates with a number of organisations and NGOs which are part of its Consultative Forum – more information is available here.

Frontex was created in 2004. Since then the mandate of the agency has been expanded twice: in 2016, when it became Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency and in 2019, which paved the way for the creation of the first European uniformed service – the European Border and Coast Guard standing corps. For more information, go here.

Frontex is one of over 30 European agencies specialising in a variety of different areas. These agencies are based in almost all countries of the EU. Some countries host more than one agency on its territory. Frontex was founded in 2004, the year Poland joined the EU as one of its 10 new members. At the time, Poland did not host any European agency. The seat of the agency was decided unanimously by the European Council.

The agency reports on its activities to the European Parliament and the Council in accordance with the Regulation, and these two institutions are actively involved in the agency’s work, exercising supervision. For example, the agency’s Management Board is obliged to share Frontex’ annual activity report and annual/multiannual work programs with the European Parliament and the Council, who may choose to invite the executive director to report on his tasks and any matter related to the activities of the agency. Furthermore, both institutions exercise financial supervision over the agency’s budget and are informed about any substantial additional financial needs/requirement of staff due to a border situation. Another example could be the obligation of Frontex to inform the European Parliament of working arrangements concluded with Union institutions, bodies, offices, agencies and international organisations. The agency is also obliged to inform the European Parliament before working arrangements are concluded with authorities of third countries. Moreover, as defined in the founding Regulation of Frontex, the agency submits to the European Parliament and the Council general risk analyses and, at least once a year, transmits the results of the vulnerability assessment. Frontex is also accountable to national border guard authorities sitting on the agency’s Management Board.

Frontex’s Management Board is composed of representatives of the heads of the border agencies of all the EU Member States that are signatories of the Schengen acquis. The Management Board also includes representatives from the United Kingdom and Ireland, as well as two members of the European Commission. Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (countries which are not EU member states, but which are associated with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis) also participate in the Management Board of the Agency. Each of them sends one representative to the Management Board but has limited voting rights. Meetings of the Management Board are convened by its Chair and are held at least five times a year.
No. It is important to underline that Frontex is a ‘practitioner body‘. This means that although the Agency is embedded within the EU, it does not come up with EU policy. This is in the hands of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council.

Yes, it does. For the first time, the European Union has its own uniformed service – the European Border and Coast Guard standing corps. This new border corps, composed of Frontex and EU Member States’ officers, is at any time able to support the Member States facing challenges at their external borders.

The standing corps, EU’s first uniformed service, is composed of Frontex and EU Member States’ officers. Their main task is to support national authorities facing challenges at their external borders. Standing corps members share many of the powers of national border guards. They can verify a person’s identity and nationality, allow or refuse entry into the EU and patrol between border crossing points.

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