Migratory routes map

One of the biggest entry routes for migrants into the EU is via international airports: most of those who currently reside in the EU illegally, originally entered in possession of valid travel documents and a visa whose validity period they have since overstayed.

Main migratory routes into the EU / land & sea

  • Western African route
  • Western Mediterranean route
  • Central Mediterranean route
  • Apulia and Calabria route
  • Circular route from Albania to Greece
  • Western Balkan route
  • Eastern Mediterranean route
  • Eastern Borders route
  • Schengen area
  • Schengen associate countries
  • Central Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May): 46 920

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Nigeria 6 343
    Eritrea 5 566
    Gambia 3 942
    read more read more
  • Western Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Apr): 1 941

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Guinea 792
    Côte d'Ivoire 275
    Cameroon 240
    read more read more
  • Western African route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Apr): 164

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Guinea 65
    Côte d'Ivoire 55
    Cameroon 17
  • Western Balkan route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May): 115 938

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Not specified (Data reported by Croatia are not disaggregated by nationality) 102 331
    Afghanistan 4 925
    Pakistan 2 470
    read more read more
  • Eastern Borders route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Apr): 307

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Vietnam 79
    Afghanistan 45
    Ukraine 38
  • Eastern Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May): 160 100

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Syria 77 735
    Afghanistan 40 023
    Iraq 25 203
    read more read more
  • Circular route from Albania to Greece
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Apr): 1 921

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Albania 1 914
    FYR of Macedonia 2
    Serbia 1
  • Apulia and Calabria route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Apr)

    Included in Central Mediterranean route read more read more

Source: FRAN and JORA data as of 3 June 2016. The data presented refer to detections of illegal border-crossing rather than the number of persons, as the same person may cross the external border several times. However, there is currently no EU system in place capable of tracing each person’s movements following an illegal border-crossing. Therefore, it is not possible to establish the precise number of persons who have illegally crossed the external border.