Migratory routes map

One of the biggest entry routes for migrants into the EU is via international airports: most of those who currently reside in the EU illegally, originally entered in possession of valid travel documents and a visa whose validity period they have since overstayed.

Main migratory routes into the EU / land & sea

  • Western African route
  • Western Mediterranean route
  • Central Mediterranean route
  • Apulia and Calabria route
  • Circular route from Albania to Greece
  • Western Balkan route
  • Eastern Mediterranean route
  • Eastern Borders route
  • Schengen area
  • Schengen associate countries
  • Central Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-June): 70 433

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Nigeria 12 266
    Eritrea 8 608
    Gambia 5 667
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  • Western Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May): 2 502

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Guinea 1 006
    Côte d'Ivoire 408
    Cameroon 302
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  • Western African route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May): 273

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Guinea 96
    Côte d'Ivoire 91
    Cameroon 29
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  • Western Balkan route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-June): 119 511

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Not specified (Data reported by Croatia are not disaggregated by nationality) 102 331
    Afghanistan 6 495
    Pakistan 3 054
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  • Eastern Borders route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May): 412

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Vietnam 117
    Afghanistan 55
    Ukraine 43
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  • Eastern Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-June): 162 563

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Syria 78 376
    Afghanistan 40 501
    Iraq 25 520
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  • Circular route from Albania to Greece
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May): 2 401

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Albania 2 391
    FYR of Macedonia 4
    Ukraine 2
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  • Apulia and Calabria route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-May)

    Included in Central Mediterranean route read more read more

Source: FRAN and JORA data as of 7 July 2016. The data presented refer to detections of illegal border-crossing rather than the number of persons, as the same person may cross the external border several times. However, there is currently no EU system in place capable of tracing each person’s movements following an illegal border-crossing. Therefore, it is not possible to establish the precise number of persons who have illegally crossed the external border.