Migratory routes map

One of the biggest entry routes for migrants into the EU is via international airports.

Main migratory routes into the EU / land & sea

  • Western African route
  • Western Mediterranean route
  • Central Mediterranean route
  • Apulia and Calabria route
  • Circular route from Albania to Greece
  • Western Balkan route
  • Eastern Mediterranean route
  • Eastern Borders route
  • Schengen area
  • Schengen associate countries
  • Central Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec): 181 459

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Nigeria 37 554
    Eritrea 20 721
    Guinea 13 550
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  • Western Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec): 10 231

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Guinea 2 184
    Algeria 1 760
    Côte d'Ivoire 1 646
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  • Western African route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec): 671

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Côte d'Ivoire 194
    Guinea 174
    Marocco 94
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  • Western Balkan route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec): 130 261

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Not specified (Data reported until March 2016 by Croatia are not disaggregated by nationality) 102 430
    Afghanistan 10 620
    Pakistan 5 583
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  • Eastern Borders route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec): 1 349

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Vietnam 399
    Afghanistan 161
    Ukraine 138
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  • Eastern Mediterranean route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec): 182 277

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Syria 84 585
    Afghanistan 43 120
    Iraq 27 978
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  • Circular route from Albania to Greece
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec): 5 121

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Albania 4 996
    Afghanistan 45
    Syria 25
  • Apulia and Calabria route
    Number of illegal border crossings in 2016 (Jan-Dec)

    Included in Central Mediterranean route read more read more

Source: FRAN and JORA data as of 7 February 2017. The data presented refer to detections of illegal border-crossing rather than the number of persons, as the same person may cross the external border several times. However, there is currently no EU system in place capable of tracing each person’s movements following an illegal border-crossing. Therefore, it is not possible to establish the precise number of persons who have illegally crossed the external border.