Migratory routes map

The single biggest entry route for migrants into the EU is via international airports: most of those who currently reside in the EU illegally, originally entered in possession of valid travel documents and a visa whose validity period they have since overstayed.

Main migratory routes into the EU / land & sea

  • Western Mediterranean route
  • Central Mediterranean Route
  • Eastern Mediterranean Route
  • Eastern Land Borders Route
  • Western Balkans Route
  • Western African Route
  • Circular Route from Greece and Albania
  • Apulia and Calabria
  • Schengen area
  • Schengen associate countries
  • Central Mediterranean Route

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 10 380

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Somalia 3 390
    Tunisia 2 240
    Eritrea 1 890

  • Western Mediterranean Route

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 6 400

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Algeria 2 020
    Not specified 1 410
    Morocco 500

  • Western African Route

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 170

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Morocco 100
    Gambia 40
    Senegal 20

  • Western Balkan Route

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 6 390

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Afghanistan 1 670
    Kosovo 940
    Pakistan 860

  • Eastern Borders Route

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 1 600

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Georgia 330
    Somalia 260
    Afghanistan 200

  • Eastern Mediterranean Route

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 37 220

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Afghanistan 9 560
    Syria 7 130
    Bangladesh 4 600

  • Circular Route from Albania and Greece

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 5 500

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Albania 5 400
    FYROM 40
    Kosovo 30

  • Apulia and Calabria

    Number of illegal border crossings in 2012: 4 770

    Top 3 nationalities of migrants:
    Afghanistan 1 710
    Pakistan 1 160
    Bangladesh 500

Source: Frontex Annual Risk Analysis 2013